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Medieval Bath & Hygiene Display

display and page under construction

 

Welcome to my newest display... a medieval bath. My fondest hope with this display is that members of the public will come to learn that medieval people did, in fact, bath. Many people have the Hollywood ideal that people in the middle ages were dirty, smelly and had poor hygiene. It just isn't true.

Soaps were known. Food and drink might be taken in the tub while a musician provided entertainment.

In the 14th century Boccaccio's the Decameron we read about bathing-

Without permitting anyone else to lay a hand on him, the lady herself washed Salabaetto all over with soap scented with musk and cloves. She then had herself washed and rubbed down by the slaves. This done, the slaves brought two fine and very white sheets, so scented with roses that they seemed like roses; the slaves wrapped Salabaetto in one and the lady in the other and then carried them both on their shoulders to the bed.

They then took from the basket silver vases of great beauty, some of which were filled with rose water, some with orange water, some with jasmine water, and some with lemon water, which they sprinkled upon them. After which they refreshed themselves with boxes of sweetmeats and the finest wines.

The image at left is my base style guide and is from Sloane 2435, Aldobrandino of Siena, Le Régime du corps (ff. 1-75v); Image du monde (ff. 77-133v) France, N. Dated to the 3rd quarter of the 13th century (perhaps c. 1285) Folio 8v. My aim is to provide the trappings of a bath house in a domestic setting. Herbs for bathing, soaps, a tub and board with food and drinks, a striped linen towel and some personal grooming tools and skin care.

The Tacuinum sanitatis of Liege, folio 76, writes of the virtues of bathing with Water of A Pleasurable Warmth:

Nature: Warm and humid in the second degree.
Optimum: The kind that opens the pores with moderate heat or with a fever.
Usefulness: For bodies with open pores; furthermore, it lowers the temperature.
Dangers: for intestinal flow.
Neutralisation of the dangers: With astringent drinks.

Drinks, therefore, were recommended.

Bathhouses also got a pretty bad reputation as houses of ill-repute, and with just cause at times. The Paris Bathhouse Keepers Guild had strict rules to follow. These included rules for those running and attending the baths.

These included:

Whoever wishes to be a bathhouse-keeper in the city of Paris may freely do so, provided he works according to the usage and customs of the trade, made by agreement of the commune, as follow.

No man or woman may heat up their baths on Sunday, or on a feast day which the commune of the city keeps.

And every person should pay, for a steam-bath, two deniers; and if he bathes, he should pay four deniers.

And because at some times wood and coal are more expensive than at others, if anyone suffers, a suitable price shall be set by the provost of Paris, through the discussion of the good people of the aforesaid trade, according to the situation of the times.

No man or woman of the aforesaid trade may maintain in their houses or baths either prostitutes of the day or night, or lepers, or vagabonds, or other infamous people of the night.

As for where a woman might acquire items for her personal toilette, she might just buy them from a shop or be given them, as a lover's gift.

Andreas Capellanus, a 12th century author of De Amore gives an insight into what dress accessories were available and could be given as a gift of love-

"A lover may freely accept from her beloved these things- a handkerchief, a hairband, a circlet of gold or silver, a brooch for the breast, a mirror, a belt, a purse, a lace for clothes, a comb, cuffs, gloves, a ring, a little box of scent, a portrait, toiletries, little vases, trays, a standard as a keepsake of the lover, and so to speak more generally, a woman may accept from her love whatever gift may be useful in the care of her person, or may look charming, or may remind her of her lover, providing, however, that in accepting the gift it is clear that she is acting quite without avarice."

A 13th century French song described in Love Lock'd Out, A Survey of Love, Licence and Restriction in the Middle Ages by James Cleugh refers to a peddlar who carries for sale:

'razors, tweezers, looking glasses, toothbrushes and tooth-picks, bandaus and curling irons, ribbons, combs, mirrors, rosewater... cotton with which they rouge themselves and whitening with which they whiten themselves.'

showing the large range of grooming cosmetics and tools which were in use and available at the time.


Below are listed the individual pieces for my bath house display and their sources and contruction methods if known. The display also includes a talk on basic medieval hygiene and skin care and includes samples of some medieval skin care products.


Infrastructure
Bath tub

Country of Origin: generic
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: bath
Colour/colours: natural
Materials: Oak, metal
Construction: traditionally made wine cask half with securing metal bands
Decoration & Finshes: painted interior. Iron bands to be covered with flexible wood. wip
Documentation: The Hague, KB, 76 F 21 fol. 15r Mary in bath Fol. 15r

Wooden Low Stool

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: Stool
Colour/colours: Oak stain
Materials: Pine
Construction: Nailed and glued
Decoration & Finshes: 2 coats of stain, Curved end pieces.
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Elizabeth Altarpiece from the Church of St. Agidius at Bardejov, c. 1480-1500
Three legged stool

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: Stool
Colour/colours: natural
Materials: maple
Construction: Traditional methods recycling a 1950s church pew
Decoration & Finshes: Waxed with beeswax & olive oil
Made by: Roy Davi, The Leura Bodger, Blue Mountains.

Board

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: bath board
Colour/colours: Oak stain
Materials: Pine
Construction: cut to size
Decoration & Finshes: none
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:

Wooden bucket

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: Medieval
Type of Item: Wooden bucket
Colour/colours: Brown
Materials: Wood
Construction: unknown
Made by: upcycle by Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Codices vindobonenses 2759-2764 in the Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek, in Vienna, Austria.

Laver stand

Country of Origin: Multiple generic
Time Period: medieval- 14th and 15 centuries
Type of Item: laver stand
Colour: natural
Materials: pine
Decoration: none
Construction:
Hand made, glued and nailed with interlocking pieces to enable transporting
Made by:
Rosalie Gilbert
Documentation:
14th century, Roman de la Rose (multiple versions)

To do:
- chain for hanging laverbo
- Attach base for brass bowl


bathing things

Lavabo for Laver

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: Lavabo
Colour: brass
Materials: brass
Decoration: animal heads with women's faces on the handles
Construction:
Hand made
Made by:
Documentation:
14th century, Roman de la Rose (multiple versions),
artifact 1451 Historisches Museum, Frankfurt

Bronze dish for Lavarbo

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item:
Colour:
Materials: bronze
Decoration:
Construction:
Hand made, wide, flat lip.
Made by:
Vintage item from Comfort Room, Ukraine
Documentation:
14th century, Roman de la Rose (multiple versions)

Brass jug for rosewater

Country of Origin: France/England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: small jug
Colour: brass
Materials: brass
Decoration: none
Construction: Hand made
Made by:
Documentation: 14th century, BohunPsalter, folio 108r

Sea Sponge: large 17cm

Country of Origin:
Italy
Time Period: medieval
Type of item: Sea sponge
Outer Colour: natural
Materials: none
Decoration: none
Made by: nature
Documentation:
Bath scene

Water jug

Country of Origin:
Generic
Time Period: medieval
Type of item: ceramic water jug
Colour: terracotta
Materials: clay
Decoration: glazed
Made by: unknown
Documentation
: extant finds

cosmetics & consumables

Castile Soap 110g

One written reference to scented soaps, comes from 14th century Boccaccio's the Decameron where we read-

"...the lady herself washed Salabaetto all over with soap scented with musk and cloves..."

Whether or not this scented soap was the luxurious Castille soap is not mentioned, but I personally feel that the blacker and coarser Aleppo soap which was also available at the time would not be this.

Country of Origin:
Castile
Time Period: medieval
Type of item: unscented soap
Colour: natural
Materials: Saponified olive oil, Alden's Olives, Cohuna, Victoria.

Decoration: none
Made by: Biome, Brisbane
Documentation: written accounts

Rosewater

Country of Origin:
Everywhere
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: rosewater
Colour: pale pink
Materials: roses
Decoration: n/a
Made by: Besttaste, Iran
Documentation: Trotula et al

Hand washing water

From A Medieval Home Companion: Housekeeping in the 14th century, Tania Bayard, from the Goodman of Paris

"To make water for washing hands at table: Boil sage, then strain the water and cool until it is a little more than lukewarm. Or use chamomile, marjoram or rosemary boiled with orange peel. Bay leaves are also good."

Country of Origin: France
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: herbal waters
Colour:
Materials:
Decoration: n/a
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Le Mesnagier de Paris

Hair powder

The Trotula, or the set of three texts attributed to Trotula, include On Women's Cosmetics, and include recipes for beauty including a beautiful-smelling hair powder, so that the hair remains sweetly scented. In the section about On Various Kinds of Adornments, it reads:

But when she combs her hair, let her have this powder. Take some dried roses, clove, nutmeg, watercress and galangal. Let all these, powdered, be mixed with rose water. With this water let her sprinkle her hair and comb it with a comb dipped in this same water so that [her hair] will smell better. And let her make furrows in her hair and sprinkle on the above-mentioned powder, and it will smell marvelously.

The entire process of living history experiment recreating the hair powder according to the recipe, is here on the TROTULA'S HAIR POWDER page.


Country of Origin:
Salerno
Time Period: medieval
Type of Accessory: hair powder
Colour: natural
Materials: dried roses, clove, nutmeg, watercress, galangal, rose water
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Trotula, On Cosmetics (attributed)

Tooth Powder

The Trotula, or the set of three texts attributed to Trotula, include On Women's Cosmetics, and include recipes for beauty including tooth powder. She writes:

Take some each of cinnamon, clove, spikenard, mastic, frankincense, grain, wormwood, crab foot, date pits, and olives. Grind all of these and reduce them to a powder, then rub the affected places. Your breath, with its mix of frankincense and crab foot, will let everyone know just how wealthy you are.

Country of Origin: Salerno
Time Period: medieval
Type of Accessory: tooth powder
Colour: natural
Materials: cinnamon, clove, spikenard, mastic, frankincense, grain, wormwood, crab foot, date pits, and olives
Made by: Michelle Barton, Cabinet of Medieval Curiousity
Documentation:
Trotula, On Cosmetics (attributed)

Tooth powder 2

Source to be cited writes:

The ashes of the burnt vine-tree or grapevine were thought to make teeth that are as black as coal to be as white as snow if you rub them every morning.

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: breath freshener
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:

Tooth powder 3 Rosemary Charcoal

Another charcoal tooth powder recipe comes from Bankes' Herbal, dated 1525.

"Also take the timber thereof [rosemary] and burn it to coals and make powder thereof and put it into a linen cloth and rub thy teeth therewith, and if there be any worms therein, it shall slay them and keep thy teeth from all evils."

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: tooth powder
Colour: black/grey
Materials: rosemary
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Bankes' Herbal, 1525 [English]

Mint mouthwash & powder

From Bankes' Herbal, 1525

"For the stinking of the mouth and filth of the gums and of the teeth, wash thy mouth and gums with vinegar that mints have been sodden in; after that, rub them with the powder of mints or with dry mints."

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: breath freshener
Colour: green
Materials: vinegar, mint
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Bankes' Herbal, 1525

Breath freshener

For breath-freshening, Trotula, or the set of three texts attributed to Trotula, include On Women's Cosmetics, include recipes for keeping the breath fresh. She writes: :

"The woman should wash her mouth after dinner with very good wine.
Then she ought to dry very well and wipe with a new white cloth.
Finally, let her chew each day fennel or lovage or parsley, which is better to chew because it gives off a good smell and cleans good gums and makes the teeth very white."

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: breath freshener
Colour: green
Materials: fennel and parsley
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Trotula, On Cosmetics

Breath freshener 2

For breath-freshening, Gilbertus Anglicus, about 1400, English

"And let him use this powder: Take of pepper, one ounce; and of mint, as much; and of rock salt, as much. And make him to chew this powder a good while in his mouth, and then swallow it down."

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: breath freshener
Colour: natural
Materials: pepper, mint, salt
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Gilbertus Anglicus, about 1400, English

Perfume

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: perfume/scent
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Trotula, On Cosmetics

Rouge

A 13th century French song refers to a peddlar who carries for sale:

'razors, tweezers, looking glasses, toothbrushes and tooth-picks, bandaus and curling irons, ribbons, combs, mirrors, rosewater... cotton with which they rouge themselves and whitening with which they whiten themselves.'

Country of Origin: France
Time Period: 13th century
Type of Item: rouge for pink cheeks
Colour: pink
Materials: dyed red wool
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Love Lock'd Out, A Survey of Love, Licence and Restriction in the Middle Ages by James Cleugh

Foundation

The L'Ornement des Dames gives this recipe for making an easy foundation:

There is a white make-up that is very easy to make. Put very pure wheat in water for fifteen days, then grind and blend it in the water. Strain through a cloth, and let it crystalise and evaporate. You will obtain a make-up which will be as white as snow. When you want to use it, mix it with rosewater, and spread it on your face which has first been washed with warm water. Then dry your face with a cloth.

Country of Origin: France
Time Period: 13th century
Type of Item: lip balm
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
L'ornement des Dames

Lip balm/stain

One recipe for a medieval lip balm described as a 'sweet smelling grease that will keep the lips and hands from chapping and make them moist and soft' comes from the book Secrets of Don Alessio Piemontese, published in 1557.

'Take 12 oz of fresh suet and 6oz of marjoram and pound them together. Form into balls and sprinkle with good wine. Next put into some vessel and seal it tightly so that the odor of the marjoram does not escape. Place in the shade for 24 hours and then put into water. Cook slowly, then strain. This process must be repeated 4 or 5 times always adding another 9oz of suet. Finally a little musk or civet can be added.'

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: lip balm
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:
Trotula, On Cosmetics

Skin tonic

The Old Woman from the manuscript the Roman de la Rose also offers advice on skincare:

If her complexion loses colour and her heart is tormented as a result, she should arrange always to have aqueous ointments hidden in boxes in her chamber, for the purpose of painting her face. But she must take care that none of her guests can smell or see them: otherwise she could be in great trouble... If her hands are not fair and unblemished but marred by spots and pimples, she ought not to leave these alone but use a needle to remove them; or else she should hide her hand in her gloves so that the spots and scabs are not visible.

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: Tonic to...
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation:

Fresh herbs for bathing

Many sources indicate that scented and herbal bathwaters were enjoyed in the medieval period. In the 14th century Boccaccio's the Decameron we read about bathing-

Without permitting anyone else to lay a hand on him, the lady herself washed Salabaetto all over with soap scented with musk and cloves. She then had herself washed and rubbed down by the slaves. This done, the slaves brought two fine and very white sheets, so scented with roses that they seemed like roses; the slaves wrapped Salabaetto in one and the lady in the other and then carried them both on their shoulders to the bed.

They then took from the basket silver vases of great beauty, some of which were filled with rose water, some with orange water, some with jasmine water, and some with lemon water, which they sprinkled upon them. After which they refreshed themselves with boxes of sweetmeats and the finest wines.

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item:
Colour:
Materials:
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation
:

Rose petals

Country of Origin:
Everywhere
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: rose petals
Colour:
Materials: roses
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation
:
Water jug

Country of Origin:
Generic
Time Period: medieval
Type of item: ceramic water jug
Colour: terracotta
Materials: clay
Decoration: glazed
Made by: unknown
Documentation
: extant finds

personal items
Ivory mirror case

Country of Origin: France
Time Period: 14th century.
Type of Accessory: Mirror
Materials: Resin, glass
Construction: Cast resin mirrorcase with glass foil-backed mirror. Hand cast.
Decoration: Hunting scene with four lions.
Dimensions: 110mm diameter.
Made by: (? Poland?Checz)
Documentation: Extant mirror, Louve
Pewter folding mirror case

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: pre 1350.
Type of Accessory: Mirror
Construction Materials: Metal, glass
Metal: Pewter
Details of Construction: Pin hinged mirrorcase with glass foil-backed mirror. Hand cast.
Details of Decoration: The crucifixion scene shows Saint John with a bible to the left and Mary carrying a purse to the right. Above the figure of Christ is a sun and moon.
Dimensions: 50mm diameter.
Made by: Steve Millingham's Pewter Replicas, England
Documentation: Museum of London collection. Made of lead-tin alloy

Wooden mirror case

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: 14th century.
Type of Accessory: Mirror
Construction Materials: wood, glass
Metal: none
Details of Construction: wooden mirror case with mirror
Details of Decoration: none
Dimensions: mm diameter.
Made by:
Bought from: Op Shop
Documentation: Manuscripts 13-15th centuries

Wooden double sided comb

Country of Origin: England, France
Time Period: 14th century
Type of item: Double sided comb
Colour: natural wood
Materials: Wood, type unknown (boxwood?)
Construction: Hand made
Decoration: Series of decorative stars on comb body
Made by: unknown
Documentation: 14th century Paris comb, Elizabeth Altarpiece from the Church of St. Agidius at Bardejov, c. 1480-1500
Documentation: 15th century French boxwood comb in the private collection of Mrs Leopold Blumka. Finely carved with two sliding compartments for cosmetics to be stored in.

Horn double sided comb

Country of Origin: England, France
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Accessory: Double sided comb
Outer Colour: black/brown
Construction Materials: horn
Details of Construction: Hand made reproduction of generic medieval comb
Details of Decoration: undecorated
Made by:
Documentation: 14th century Paris comb

Bone Gravoire (hair parter)

Country of Origin: France
Time Period: 14th century
Type of item: Hair parter- gravoire
Colour: White
Materials: Bone
Construction: Hand carved and shaped
Decoration: undecorated
Made by: unknown
Documentation: (not the one shown) 14th century Italy, Ivory. Collection of Mrs Ernest Brummer

Tweezers

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: locking tweezers
Colour: gold
Materials: brass
Decoration: several incised grooves, locking wire
Construction: Hand made
Made by: Gaukler Medieval Wares
Documentation:
14th century artifact, The Gilbert Collection

Earscoop & nail cleaner

Country of Origin:
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: ear scoop and nail cleaner
Colour: gold
Materials: brass
Decoration: barley twist main stem
Construction:
Hand made
Made by:
Gaukler Medieval Wares
Documentation:
14th century artifact, The Gilbert Collection

Paternoster

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: Paternoster
Colour/colours: red, white, gold
Materials: Linen thread, marble, gold spacers, red silk tassel
Construction: Ten groups of ten beads threaded onto linen, gold spacer, with tassel terminating at the end.
Decoration: none
Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: 1400s Mother of God With Pea Blossom, Master of Cologne, Germany
Ball headed dress pins

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: veil pins
Colour: gold
Materials: brass
Construction: hand made
Decoration: ball heads
Made by: Bero Heftelmacher, Bero von Saeckingen, Germany
Documentation: Extant pins, Museum of London
Cosmetics containers

Country of Origin: Generic
Time Period: Medieval
Type of Item: Container
Colour/colours: Natural
Materials: Wood
Construction: Hand turned
Decoration & Finishes: lines running horizontally
Made by: Walter, Brisbane
Documentation: Artifacts
Birch Box with lid

Country of Origin:
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: Bentwood box
Colour/colours: Light brown
Materials: Birch
Construction: Commercially produced
Dimensions: 19cm diameter
Decoration & Finishes: handpainted with scene from the Manesse Codex, Germany
Made by: unknown, painted by Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Extant painted box

Soft furnishings & Linens

Bath curtains

Country of Origin:
England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: curtains
Colour/colours: white
Materials: linen
Construction: machined stitching
Decoration & Finishes: navy blue circular top

Made by: Rosalie's Medieval Woman
Documentation: Aldobrandino of Siena, Le Régime du corps folio 8v

Striped Towel

Country of Origin: Everywhere
Time Period: 13th-15th century
Type of Item: Towel
Colour/colours: Blue and white
Materials: Flax linen/cotton
Construction: Hand woven
Dimensions: 80cm x 155cm
Decorations: diamond weave with blue stripes and tassels
Made by: unknown for Medieval Design, Italy
Documentation: 1350 Manuscript Naples Wedding at Canna

Striped Tablecloth

Country of Origin: Everywhere
Time Period: 13th-15th century
Type of Item: Towel
Outer Colour/colours: Blue and white
Construction Materials: Flax linen/cotton
Construction: Hand woven
Dimensions: 35cm x 150cm
Decorations: diamond weave with blue stripes and tassels
Made by: unknown for Medieval Design, Italy
Documentation: 1350 Manuscript Naples Wedding at Canna

Hand towel

Country of Origin: Everywhere
Time Period: Medieval
Type of Item: hand towel
Colour/colours: White
Materials: Cotton in diaper weave
Construction: Hand stitched with rolled hems
Decoration: fringed on ends
Made by: Commercially woven, fringed by Rosalie
Documentation

Tableware
Flagon

Country of Origin:
England, France, Switzerland
Time Period: 1350 onwards
Type of Item: Flagon
Colour: Silver
Materials: Pewter
Construction: 8 body panels soldered together. The lid is cast in one piece with the finial and twin ball thumb-piece being cast separately and then soldered on. 21cm tall. One and a half pints capacity.
Decoration: Acorn finial on lid and hinge
Made by: Steve Millingham Pewter Reproductions or Lionheart Replicas
Documentation: Artifact. Tonbridge Flagon, River Medway, Tonbridge Castle, England. dated 1400. Three examples have currently been found in England to date, while further examples have been found on the continent.
Hexagonal beaker

Country of Origin:
Prague
Time Period: 1350
Type of Item: Cup
Colour: Silver
Materials: Pewter
Construction: Pewter cast in one piece with hexagonal sides.
Details of Decoration: None
Made by: Steve Millingham Pewter Reproductions
Documentation: Artifact, Prague. dated at between 1310 and 1335 and made of gilded silver and are from Prague. The panels were made separately and soldered together. Other artifact dated 1350 (?) Pewter tableware dates as early as the late 13th century. Approx 300 pieces are listed in Edward I's rolls.
Large silver plate

Country of Origin:
England
Time Period: medieval
Type of Item: Plate
Outer Colour: Silver
Construction Materials: Pewter
Details of Construction: Cast in one piece, wide flat rim
Dimensions:
Details of Decoration: No decoration
Made by:
Documentation: Artifacts, Compton Castle Collection. Pewter tableware dates as early as the late 13th century. Approximately 300 pieces are listed in Edward I's rolls.

Bone handled knife

Country of Origin: England
Time Period: 1350-1400
Type of Item: Knife
Colour/colours: Cream
Materials: Bone, steel
Construction: Not known, original blade modified
Made by: unknown
Documentation: Artifact. 1350 Thames, England

Acorn knop spoon

Country of Origin:
England France
Time Period: 14th century
Type of Item: Spoon
Colour: Silver
Materials: Pewter
Construction: Cast in one piece. Wide, fig-shaped dish. Wide finial.
Decoration: Acorn finial, stamped S on bowl.
Made by: Steve Millingham Pewter Replicas
Documentation: Artifacts. York City Museum replica. Also 14thC Bronze spoon, France, MedGallery, Collection of Jean Boxhorn. Metropolitan Museum of Art states the first known reference to the acorn spoon is in a will dated 1348 where John de Holegh bequeathed to Thomas Taillour "12 silver spoons with akernes". The Gilbert family lists a purchase of 8 silver Acorn spoons.

 

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